The term «controlling» (the term «management accounting» is more often used in English-speaking countries) is widely used in Germany, from where it came to Russia. When considering controlling as a tool, it may be defined as a sub-function of corporate governance, and as an integrated system of information, analytical, and methodical support to executives in the course of planning, coordination, control, and management decision making in all functional areas of the enterprise.
Controlling as a management tool for achieving goals is divided into strategic and operational.
Strategic controlling coordinates functions of strategic planning, control, and the system of strategic information support.
Operational controlling coordinates processes of operational planning, control, accounting and reporting in the enterprise with the support of a modern information system. Operational controlling is primarily associated with the financial parameters, such as sales, costs and profits, while strategic controlling is focused on such factors as strong and weak points, possibilities, and risks.